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Stephen Barber: The Projectionists

Stephen Barber

The Projectionists
Eadweard Muybridge and the Future Projections of the Moving Image

Softcover, 208 pages

PDF, 208 pages

Eadweard Muybridge is among the seminal originators of the contemporary world’s visual form, with its concentrated image-sequences of bodies in movement and its ocular obsessions. This book examines an almost unknown dimension of Muybridge’s work, as a moving-image projectionist, who toured Europe’s cities to enthral beyond-capacity audiences with unprecedented projections and who built a moving-image auditorium - long before cinemas were created - in which to project his work at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. That final invention of Muybridge’s was both an all-engulfing catastrophe and the vital precursor for the following century’s worldwide manias for projection. Based on entirely new research into Muybridge’s travels, audiences, auditoria and projectors, this book explores his initiating role in moving-image projection and also maps Muybridge’s driving inspiration for subsequent artists and filmmakers preoccupied with the volatile entity of projection, from 1890s Berlin to contemporary Japan, via further spectacular World’s Exposition events and cinemas’ overheated projection-boxes.

The book looks closely at the enigmatic figure of the moving-image projectionist, from its origins in Muybridge’s experiments, across glass, celluloid and digital projections, to the contemporary moment. Moving-image projection formed a crucial determinant in the imagining of new corporealities and new urban spaces, through its irrepressible capacity to envision future bodies and cities. The cinema projectionist - a solitary figure of compulsion and restlessness, inhabiting a profession touched with the multiple addictions and deaths of the moving image - was once a pivotal presence for global cinema audiences but is now consigned to near-obsolescence.

The book investigates contemporary urban projections as aberrant manifestations derived from Muybridge’s first conjurations of projection’s power for its spectators. Throughout, the book interrogates the strange figure of the projectionist, embodied first of all by Muybridge himself.


The Projectionists will attract and fascinate all lovers of cinemas, photography and moving-image cultures.

  • 7–26

    The Projectionists

  • 27–73

    Muybridge's Central European Projections, 1891

  • 74–128

    Muybridge's Chicago Exposition Projections, 1893

  • 129–147

    Projection's Devils: Max and Emil Skladanowsky, 1895-97

  • 148–169

    Projections of the Osaka World Exposition, 1970

  • 171–185

    Lovers: Teiji Furuhashi's Projections, 1994/2016/2020

  • 186–203

    Projections of Future Cities, Projections of Future Bodies

  • 205–206


  • 207–208

    Illustrations List

  • cultural history
  • aesthetics of film
  • media studies
  • history of media
  • film experience
  • History of photography

»Barber tells the largely unknown story of Muybridge as the first ever moving-image projectionist ... the book is also an interrogation of the solitary and gradually vanishing occupation of the cinema projectionist as embodied by the enigmatic figure of Muybridge himself.« David Peace, Times Literary Supplement

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Stephen Barber

is the author of twenty-five books, including seven novels, most recently White Noise Ballrooms and The Projectionists. Eadweard Muybridge and the Future Projections of the Moving Image. He has received several awards for his books, which have been translated into many languages, such as Japanese and Chinese. The Independent newspaper (London) once called him “the most dangerous man in Europe.” He is a professor at the Kingston School of Art, Kingston University, London, and a visiting research fellow at the Free University Berlin and Keio University Tokyo.